The Cuban Missile Crisis
In the 1950s Fidel Castro together with his brother Raúl Castro and cooperating with Ernesto Che Guevara prepared a guerilla war in order to change the corrupted regime of the Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.
The guerilla war begun in 1956 and on 1 January 1959 Batista surrendered and fled to the USA. In Cuba arose communist regime that remains until nowadays.
For the United States, the Caribbean region was always the important one. They considered the revolution and Castro’s ruling dangerous for the American interests, hence United States stopped in the spring 1960 helping Cuba. In the response the new leader of Cuba, Fidel Castro, started cooperation with Soviet Union. That was very disadvantageous for the United States, because of the strategic location of Cuba.
In a reaction to those incidents, the United States commenced the unsuccessful Bay of Pigs Invasion on 17 April 1961. Fidel Castro tried to enlarge the cooperation between Cuba and Soviet Union and asked Moscow for help.
With deepening of the relations with the Soviet Union Moscow wanted to deploy the nuclear missiles in Cuba. Castro believed that this step will reinforce the safety of Cuba and its political regime. Shortly before this step, United States deployed similar missiles in Italy and Turkey. The Soviet missiles were secretly transported on Cuba in the summer 1962.
However, in October 1962, an American U-2 spy plane found and secretly photographed the nuclear missiles on 14 October 1962. American president Kennedy met in secret with his advisors and they tried to find a possible solution to that problem. Missile Crisis broke out on 16 October 1962.
Kennedy sought a non-military solution, in order not to cause a nuclear war. He met the Soviet minister for foreign affairs Gromyko, but Gromyko denied the missiles.
Kennedy decided to place a naval blockade around Cuba to make it impossible to transport on Cuba more Soviet weapons. Kennedy wanted to force the Soviet Union to destruct the existing missiles on Cuba and not to transport any more there.
Dramatic discussions started even in the United Nations Organisation (UNO). Soviet Union was also afraid of causing nuclear conflict. After many complicated negotiations between Khruschev and Kennedy, KGB and CIA, and the Soviet and American ministries. Khruschev proposed that Soviet Union will remove the nuclear weapons from Cuba if the United States will admit the commitment not to invade Cuba.
Shortly after that Khruschev decided to ask something more, he demanded a removal of American missiles from Turkey and Italy.
The situation became worse when the American aircraft U-2 was shot down and the pilot died.
Finally, Nikita Khruschev assented to remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba on 28 October 1962, the United States admitted the commitment not to invade Cuba and according to a secret appendix, United States removed the missiles from Italy and Turkey.
The measures were later really conducted and the naval blockade around Cuba was cancelled on 20 November 1962.