Ex President of Cuba Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz was born on 13 August 1926 in a small farm in Cuba to a Spanish migrant and his Cuban wife.
Firstly he attended a Catholic school called La Salle boarding school in Santiago with his younger brother Raúl Castro, but because of bad behaviour they both were forced to change the school. Later he went to very prestigious Jesuit-run school called El Colegio de Belén in Havana. He liked history, geography, debating and he also liked doing sport. In 1945, he started studying law at the University of Havana.
From the beginning he hated the corrupted regime of the Cuban President Fulgencio Batista. After finishing the studies at the Faculty of Law in Havana he joined the opposition movement seeking to overthrow the regime of Batista.
Castro worked as a lawyer, he helped to found a legal company that primarily focused on legal help for poor Cubans, but the company finally bankrupted. Because Castro was not able to pay his bills, his property was repossessed.
As he wanted to improve the political situation in Cuba, he was a politician and revolutionary. Castro was communist and Cuban nationalist. In 1952, Castro was nominated as a candidate for the House of Representatives in the poorest districts in Havana.
In order to reinforce his political position, he formed an illegal group called „The Movement“, later „The Movement“ was renamed „26th of July Movement“, and he intended to attack the military garrison Moncada Barracks on 26 July 1953. The unsuccessful attack led to Castro’s imprisonment. In prison he gave a famous speech History Will Absolve Me which became a program of the illegal „26th of July Movement“.
Castro was released from prison in 1955 after Batista’s amnesty.
Later Castro together with his brother Raúl fled the country to Mexico to avoid another arrest. They met Che Guevara in Mexico and started to prepare a guerilla war from exile together.
In 1956 after purchasing the Granma yacht they sailed together with another 81 revolutionaries back to Cuba to begin the guerilla war. They succeeded to hide in the Sierra Maestra mountains and gain favour of the local people. Fidel recorded a video in English which he sent to the world claiming democracy and social equity.
On 1 January 1959 Batista surrendered and fled to the USA. Fidel Castro became a prime minister. Instead of cooperating with the USA Castro inclined to the countries of the Eastern Bloc. He collectivized the agriculture and nationalized the Cuban industry which led to an instant break in diplomatic relations with the USA. It also led to the CIA invasion in the Bay of Pigs and failed attempt of overthrowing Castro.
With deepening of the relations with the Soviet Union Moscow agreed to deploy the nuclear weapons in Cuba. Castro believed that this step will reinforce the safety of Cuba and its political regime. But the United States considered the deployment of nuclear weapons offensive and the Cuban Missile Crisis broke out on 16 October 1962. Finally, Nikita Khruschev assented to remove the nuclear weapons, however, United States had to admit the commitment not to invade Cuba.
During his leadership of Cuba, Castro increased literacy and introduced health and social reforms, but with suppression of democracy, political prisoners and lack of freedom.
With the fall of communism in Europe an economic crisis began and Cuba found itself on the edge of interest. In 2006 Castro due to the high age and health problems surrendered all the state functions and went into seclusion.